Scientific Papers


© CSR, 2008-2019
ISSN: 2306-3483 (Online), 2071-8330 (Print)

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Public health and national security proxies: Case of European countries

Vol. 16, No 3, 2023


Alina Vysochyna


Department of Accounting and Taxation,

Sumy State University, Ukraine

ORCID 0000-0001-9490-1026

Public health and national security proxies: Case of European countries

Wiesław Zawadzki


Academy of Justice, Poland’

ORCID 0000-0003-3849-642X

Serhiy Lyeonov


Faculty of Management and Security Studies, 

University of Social Sciences, Poland

ORCID 0000-0001-5639-3008

Attila Kovács


Budapest Metropolitan University


ORCID 0000-0002-3133-9686 



Abstract. The COVID-19 pandemic has spurred transformations aimed at ensuring the effectiveness of the public health system and highlighted the need for a deeper study of the causal relationships between the parameters of healthcare system effectiveness and the national security. The aim of this study is to identify causal and temporal patterns in the impact of various types of healthcare expenditures on the components of national security. The study was conducted on a sample of 34 European countries for 2000-2021. In order to achieve the research objectives, integral indicators of economic, social, and environmental security were developed based on a complex combination of principal component analysis, Fishburn formula and additive convolution. Panel data regression modelling was employed to identify causal relationships between health care expenditures and those integral indicators. Finally, distributional-lag modelling (testing for the presence of a lag of up to 3 years) identified temporal patterns of the relationship between the indicators. Causal and temporal patterns of the relationship between health care expenditures and components of national security of the state were determined according to the modelling results.


Received: February, 2022

1st Revision: August, 2023

Accepted: September, 2023


DOI: 10.14254/2071-8330.2023/16-3/13


JEL ClassificationC23, F52, H51, I18

Keywordspublic health, national security, economic growth, social security, environmental security, coronavirus disease, European countries